1833 and 1847: It is unlikely that copies of the first editions of his essays and poems, published between 1833 and 1847, found their way south in the originals, except through the interest and admiration of those who had been attracted to New England....of that early following Sarmiento was among the first to respond to Emerson's teaching and thought.
1853: Concepts and opinions of Emerson reflected in Latin American criticism from the days when Sarmiento, in 1853, referred to him as the co-author of the celebrated treatise on The School and the School Master.
1865: It was then, in 1865, that Sarmiento would again return to Concord to spend some eight days in the company of Emerson and his friends. In one of his letters written on the trip he tells us that he ate with "Waldo Emerson a quien había mandado el Facundo." In another he speaks of Emerson as "un monumento publico ... a quien rodea como una aureola la veneración publica." And he recalls the long conversations they had together bout educational matters, ".. . materia que tanto nos interesa a ambos."
1871 (1916?) : In any event, what is probably the earliest bit of Emerson in Spanish translation came to attention some years ago in Longfellow's home in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where an uncovered a manuscript copy, done in Rafael Pombo's hand, of a translation of his "Fable" on the mountain and the squirre appeared. Pombo entitled his version "El monte y la ardilla," and in a footnote he stated that it was intended for inclusion in his projected collection of Fabulas y verdades, a collection that was not published until 1916. Pombo's translation is dated in New York, 14 February 1871.
1871: We do not know that he (Pombo) ever met Emerson. But he did attempt to establish contact with him when he sent him a copy of his translation of "Fable" in a letter dated 15 February 1871.
1874: In one of the earliest pieces on United States literature to appear in Latin America. Eduardo de la Barra was to include an "imitation" of Emerson's "The Humble-Bee" in an article on "La literatura de imaginación en los Estados Unidos" that appeared in the 11 June issue of Sud-America (Santiago) for 1874.
1882: ...upon the latter's death (Emerson) in 1882, Sarmiento should have entitled his tribute: "iLos dioses se van!" Readers of Sarmiento's moving lines published in El Nacional of Buenos Aires for 26 June 1882 must have shared a good measure of their grand old man's profound admiration for one described as "una cabeza griega sobre cuadradas espaldas yankees ... que durante cuarenta años, después de veinte opuestos a sus doctrinas, ha tenido la dirección de los espíritus en Norte América y ha visto formarse una escuela de ideas emersonianas."
1878: Years later, when speaking in 1878 at the inauguration of a public library in San Fernando, Sarmiento would pay public tribute to Emerson's forty years of work in behalf of education. Linking the name and memory of Emerson to those of one who had taught him to respect the title of maestro above all others, Sarmiento reminded his audience that Emerson and Mann had headed "la agitación de educación popular que acabo por generalizarse a todos los Estados."
1882: Sarmiento's tribute to Emerson was preceded but a matter of weeks by two similarly-inspired pieces: one by Jose Marti, signed on 6 May, that appeared in the 19 May issue of La Opinión Nacional of Caracas, the other by Enrique Jose Varona published by El Triunfo of Havana on 11 May. And so it was that the year 1882, the year of his death, signalled the beginning of Emerson's wide-spread reputation and influence in Latin America.
1882: Marti's lines were first published in La Opinión Nacional of Caracas for 19 May 1882.Towering above them all, and in a very special category of his own-albeit in one not too far removed from that of our homely hiplosopher and prototype Franklin, soars one exalted by Marti in a flow of inspired epithets that grace his magnificent tribute to "aquella aguila blanca que se llamó Emerson."
1889: Years later in 1889, when gathering material for the first number of La Edad de Oro, his pioneering contribution to Latin American periodical literature for the young, Marti too turned to the same fable--"fabula nueva del filosofo norteamericano Emerson,"-rendering it anew in Spanish under the title "Cada uno a su oficio."